Smart Street Lighting Solutions – A connected outdoor lighting solution for smart city applications integrates an area, road or street lighting network into the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem and transforms lighting systems into smart digital hubs that support data-driven operations and other smart city applications. As LED technology has risen to the forefront of the lighting conversation, maximizing energy savings and creating new value propositions from solid-state lighting (SSL) systems increasingly depend on successful integration into a collaborative environment of cyber-physical systems.
Outdoor lighting for rural and urban infrastructure has evolved. Today, it is the convergence of hardware and software, distributed and centralized intelligence, operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT). An IoT-based smart lighting solution uses a platform-based approach to create flexibility, scalability and interoperability for devices, systems, applications and networks that work together and create synergies. With IP-based digital networking and communication, a framework has been outlined to harmonize heterogeneous technologies and enable direct integration of intelligent street lighting systems in the growing world of IoT.
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Outdoor lighting is an important public service as it extends the use of rural and urban infrastructure further into the night. In the public lighting sector, outdoor lighting comes in many forms, including area, road and street lighting. Outdoor lighting is designed to illuminate specific geometric areas such as public squares, parking lots, parks, squares, sports fields, golf courses, industrial areas, cargo terminals, railway stations, railway crossings, container yards, university campuses, intersections, roundabouts, pedestrian crossings, etc. Street lighting is provided for separated highways (motorways, expressways) with full or partial access control; roads with high visual complexity and high traffic volume; and streets without the usual presence of pedestrians, cyclists and parked vehicles. Street lighting is provided for roads (arterial roads, main roads or priority roads) connecting the main traffic generators; roads handling traffic within residential, commercial and industrial areas; local roads used for access to residential, commercial and industrial facilities; streets, sidewalks, bike paths and other roads where pedestrians and cyclists are normally present. Outdoor public lighting is primarily intended to provide accurate and comfortable visibility for road users and thus protect and facilitate both vehicles and pedestrians. It also communicates information about the surrounding environment at night to improve safety and security, supports a consistent aesthetic theme for the streetscape or outdoor area, and improves the visual experience of road users.
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Life without external lighting is impossible to imagine. Outdoor public lighting around the world provides an improved visual environment for the safe use of road systems and outdoor facilities in the dark. However, the operation of public lighting is a large expense that can strain municipal budgets. The ubiquitous network of street lighting systems creates a large carbon footprint that must be reduced to meet the challenge of sustainable development. While outdoor lighting consumes a significant amount of energy, condition-based maintenance for a large number of outdoor fixtures is extremely labor intensive if the task cannot be automated. The design of the lighting of the area, road or street requires the systematic consideration and integration of many elements.
In addition to issues such as life cycle costs and the impact of energy consumption on the environment, outdoor lighting must embrace the dynamics of human-environment interactions and participate in the transformation of the urban landscape by creating strategic lighting scenarios. Whether we want to increase energy efficiency, enable planned maintenance or dynamically adapt to changing circumstances, outdoor lighting must be responsive.
The outdoor lighting of public areas and transport infrastructure has undergone a radical transformation, driven by the introduction of semiconductor-based light sources known as light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Light emitting diodes are electroluminescent devices that produce light by the recombination of electrons and holes in the semiconductor band. The high quantum efficiency of such electroluminescence enables the creation of device packages with light efficiency that exceeds the limits of traditional technologies.
LED technology enables energy savings that go beyond significantly improved source efficiency to fully incorporate the lighting efficiency (LAE) framework. The LAE framework takes advantage of the unique characteristics of LEDs that provide the ability to control light distribution with high optical distribution efficiency, optimize spectral power distribution (SPD) for a high scotopic/photopic (S/P) ratio, and give the right amount of light. only when necessary. Already today, the use of LED surface, road and street lights (hereafter collectively “street lights”) brings significant energy savings. The longevity of LEDs offers the possibility of creating long-life lighting systems, which eases the burden of maintenance. High operating efficiency and lower maintenance costs together reduce the light cycle costs of LED street lights.
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An LED street lamp is a lighting system that produces, controls and distributes light. The lamp consists of an LED module, a thermal management system, an electrical control system (LED driver and control circuit) and an optical system. These lighting components are housed in a sealed, corrosion-resistant housing that provides a mounting mechanism, acts as a heat sink for conductive and convective heat transfer, and controls environmental conditions to protect the components from water and dust ingress, conditions adverse weather and extreme or repeated changes in environmental conditions. From an electrical engineering perspective, the operation of an LED street light revolves around regulating the drive current for the LED load. Light-emitting diodes are current-controlled devices that initially operate on direct current and respond immediately to a change in current. These solid state transmitters themselves have full range dimming capability, instant start/restart capability, and superior circuit breaker durability.
How the LEDs behave depends on the current setting of the machine. The variety of control options that can be integrated into the LED driver allows for an endless variety and combination of dynamic effects to optimize the lighting environment. The unprecedented level of light source control has sparked a new way of thinking about improving the efficiency of street lights. While in the past it was impractical to dim HID street lights and instantly change the state of those lights, LED lighting is a practical way to do this. A full range of control strategies can be used in LED lighting systems to take advantage of every opportunity to save energy. These strategies are implemented using, for example, dusk-to-dawn photocontrols, nighttime photocontrols, time switches, astronomical clocks, and motion detectors. LEDs can work perfectly through the regulation of the current of the machine with any kind of sensor and lighting controller.
While LED technology provides a platform to unlock the energy-saving potential of lighting control without the need for much thought, a thoughtful approach to remote control of large numbers of geographically distributed lights must be developed and implemented. With built-in intelligence, stand-alone intelligent street lighting systems can automate certain aspects of their operation. However, control logic runs on its own to perform automated tasks and must be programmed in advance.
Remote network connectivity is a key capability for intelligent street lighting systems to manage system changes, algorithm optimization and firmware updates. By networking different systems and devices, streetlights can be fully controlled to enable centralized configuration, commissioning, monitoring and troubleshooting. Remote switching on or off, remote dimming and emergency control of individual lamps, lamp groups and lamps of the entire installation can be carried out at one control point. As increased processing power finds its way into outdoor lighting systems for lighting control purposes, the increased ability to coordinate the operation of networked lighting systems across an installation can facilitate the implementation of sophisticated lighting control algorithms. to enable a whole new class of functionality.
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The digital transformation of the lighting network is essential to the successful implementation of a sustainable and sustainable smart outdoor lighting solution. The convergence of OT and IT, as a result of harmonizing the large heterogeneity of hardware and software, creates digital control systems that can perform zoning and rezoning through software addressing rather than hard-wired.
The digital grid enables individual addressability of LED street lights. Lighting systems no longer need to be zoned or modified based on the load on the electrical circuit. Control zoning can be as detailed as necessary. It can be assigned to individual lamps, a group of lamps in a lighting circuit, or a conceptual group of lamps in different circuits. This degree of flexibility increases the responsiveness of the control system, addresses the trend towards using small control areas to achieve maximum energy savings, and enables the use of multiple control strategies in a single luminaire.
The digital street lamp network allows control commands to be transmitted as digital binary messages, rather than control commands based on voltage variations. Control functionality can be created through software programming. In addition, two-way communication is enabled to monitor the status of street lights, in addition to transmitting digital commands. Control devices can be connected to the wiring bus to report power consumption and any anomalies.
With digital networks, the control hierarchy evolves into a much leaner and more efficient architecture. The digitally controlled and connected LED street lamp combines LED lights, intelligence, networking and even sensing in a single system. It communicates with the central management system (CMS), environment, control devices and other connected lamps and enables data exchange. At the device level
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